Ted Turlings





  • research

    Over the last two decades we have revealed that plants under attack by insect herbivores initiate a systemic release of specific volatiles. In the case of caterpillars feeding on leaves, the plant's response results in an odour that serves as a signal used by parasitic wasps to locate their hosts, whereas several herbivorous insects are repelled by the odour. Studies into the mechanisms of the plant response show that it is greatly enhanced by factors in the oral secretions of herbivorous insects. In collaboration with colleagues at the USDA in Gainesville, Florida, we isolated and identified a powerful elicitor from the regurgitant of Spodoptera larvae, which was named volicitin.

In more recent work on root signals we show that root feeding by larvae of the important maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera results in the release of E-(ß)caryophyllene. This sesquiterpene was identified with the help of our collaborators at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology and was found to be highly attractive to entomopatogenic nematodes. Many American maize lines do not release this signal and this is reflected in poor attraction of and infection by the nematodes in field experiments conducted with the help of scientist at CABI Bioscience , Switzerland.

Now that we have obtained considerable insight into the mechanisms of these above- and belowground multi-trophic level interactions, this knowledge is being applied to better understand the evolutionary, ecological and applicable aspects of chemical signalling between plants and insects. Thus, it is envisioned that the studies will contribute to evolutionary theory on multitrophic level interactions, but also to novel strategies for pest management.

  • recent publications



    160. Hao, X., D. Gaylord. T. Degen, G. Zhou, D. Laplanche, L. Henryk, T.C.J. Turlings. Combined use of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and sex pheromones for mate location in braconid parasitoids. Plant, Cell & Environment (online)


    159. Maag, D., A. Köhler, C.A.M. Robert, M. Frey, J.-L. Wolfender, T.C.J. Turlings, G. Glauser, M. Erb. (2016). Highly localised and persistent induction of Bx1-dependent herbivore resistance factors in maize. The Plant Journal (in press)


    158. Jaffuel, G., P. Mäder, Ru. Blanco-Perez, X. Chiriboga, A. Fliessbach, T.J.C. Turlings, R. Campos-Herrera (2016). Prevalence and activity of entomopathogenic nematodes and their antagonists in soils that are subject to different agricultural practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 230: 329–340


    157. Rasmann, S. and T.C.J. Turlings (2016). Root signals that mediate mutualistic interactions in the rhizosphere. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 32: 62–68


    156. Ardanuy, A., R. Albajes and T.C.J. Turlings (2016). Innate and learned prey-searching behavior in a generalist predator. Journal of Chemical Ecology 42(6): 497-507


    155. Desurmont, G.A., H. Xu, T.C.J. Turlings (2016). Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa .   Plant, Cell & Environment (online) doi: 10.1111/pce.12752


    154. Desurmont, G.A., M.A. Zemanova, T.C.J. Turlings (2016). The gastropod menace: Slugs on Brassica plants affect caterpillar survival through consumption and interference with parasitoid attraction. Journal of Chemical Ecology 3: 183-192


    153. X.-F. Liu, H.-H. Chen, J.-K.i Li, R. Zhang, T.C.J. Turlings, and L. Chen (2016). Volatiles released by Chinese liquorice roots mediate host location behavior by neonate Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Margarodidae). Pest Management Science 72(10): 1959-1964


    152. Veyrat, N., C.A.M. Robert, H. Xu, M. Frey, J. Ton, and T.C.J. Turlings, and M. Erb (2016). Herbivore intoxication as a potential primary function of an inducible volatile plant signal.   Journal of Ecology 10.1111/1365-2745.12526


    151. de Lange, E. S., K. Farnier, B. Gaudillat, and T.C.J. Turlings (2016). Comparing the attraction of two parasitoids to herbivore-induced volatiles of maize and its wild ancestors, the teosintes.   Chemoecology 26 (1): 33-44




    150. Erb, M., G. Marti, C. Robert, J. Lu, G.R. Doyen, N. Villard, Y. Barrière, B. W. French, J.-L. Wolfender and T.C.J. Turlings (2015). A physiological and behavioral mechanism for leaf-herbivore induced systemic root resistance. Plant Physiology 69(4): 2884-2894


    149. Benrey, Betty); Degen, Thomas); Turlings, Ted C. J. Special Issue: 15th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships Preface. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 157(1): 1-1


    148. Campos-Herrera, R., V. Půža, G. Jaffuel, R. Blanco-Pérez, R. Čepulytė-Rakauskienė,  T.C.J. Turlings (2015). Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. and entomopathogenic nematodes: implications for their natural distribution in Swiss tillage soils. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 132: 216–227


    147. Maag, D., M. Erb,  J. S. Bernal, J.-L. Wolfender, T.C.J. Turlings, and G. Glauser (2015). Maize domestication and anti-herbivore defences: leaf-specific dynamics during early ontogeny of maize and its wild ancestors. Plos One 10 (8) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135722


    146. Pineda, A., R. Soler, M. J. Pozo, S. Rasmann, and T.C.J. Turlings (2015).   Above-belowground interactions involving plants, microbes and insects.  Frontiers in Plant Science http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00318

    145. Klauser D., G. Desurmont, G. Glauser, A. Vallat, P. Flury, T. Boller, T.C.J. Turlings, and S. Bartels (2015).  The Arabidopsis AtPep-PEPR danger detection system is induced by Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions to mediate defense responses against herbivores.  Journal of Experimental Biology doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv250

    144. Jaffuel G., I. Hiltpold, and T.C.J. Turlings (2015). Highly potent extracts from pea (Pisum sativum) and maize (Zea mays) roots can be used to induce quiescence in entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 41 : 793-800


    143. Amorós-Jiménez, R., C.A.M. Robert, M. Á . Marcos-Garc í a, A. Fereres, and T.C.J. Turlings (2015). A differential role of volatiles from conspecific and heterospecific competitors in the selection of oviposition sites by the aphidophagous hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii. Journal of Chemical Ecology 41(5):493-500


    142. Desurmont G.A., Laplanche D., Schiestl F.P., and Turlings T.C.J. (2015).  Floral volatiles interfere with plant attraction of parasitoids: ontogeny-dependent infochemical dynamics in Brassica rapa.  BMC Ecology 15:17 DOI 10.1186/s12898-015-0047-7

    141. Campos-Herrera R., G. Jaffuel, X. Chiriboga, R. Blanco-Pérez, M. Fesselet, V. Půža, F. Mascher, and T. C. J. Turlings (2015). Traditional and molecular detection methods reveal intense interguild competition and other multitrophic interactions associated with native entomopathogenic nematodes in Swiss tillage soils . Plant & Soil 389: 237-255

    140. Erb M., N. Veyrat, C.A.M. Robert, H. Xu, M. Frey, J. Ton, and T.C.J. Turlings (2015). Indole is an essential herbivore-induced volatile priming signal in maize. Nature Communications 6: 6273

    139. Kim J.W., G. Jaffuel, and T.C.J. Turlings (2015). Enhanced alginate capsule properties as a formulation of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biocontrol 60: 527-535

    138. Hiltpold I., G. Jaffuel, T.C.J. Turlings (2015). The dual effects of root cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematode. Journal of Experimental Botany 66: 603-11


    137. Sobhy I.S., M. Erb and T.C.J.   Turlings (2015). Plant strengtheners enhance parasitoid attraction to herbivore-damaged cotton via qualitative and quantitative changes in induced volatiles.  Pest Management Science 71 : 686-693


    136. Köhler A., D. Maag, N. Veyrat, G. Glauser, J.-L. Wolfender., T. C. J. Turlings, M. Erb (2015).  Within-plant distribution of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones contributes to herbivore niche differentiation in maize. Plant, Cell and Environment 38:1081-93

    135. Chabaane Y. , D. Laplanche, T. C. J. Turlings and G. A. Desurmont (2015).  Impact of exotic insect herbivores on native tritrophic interactions: a case study of the African cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.  Journal of Ecology 103: 109-117


    134. de Lange E., D. Balmer, B. Mauch-Mani, T.C.J. Turlings (2014). Insect and pathogen resistance in cultivated maize and its wild ancestor, teosinte. New Phytologist 204: 329-341 (Review)

    133. Xu H., N. Veyrat, T. Degen, T.C.J. Turlings (2014). Exceptional use of sex pheromones in parasitoids of the genus Cotesia: males are strongly attracted to virgin females, but are no longer attracted to or even repelled by mated females. Insects 5 : 499-512

    132. Röder, G. D, D. Canestrari, D. Bolopo, J.M. Marcos, N. Villard, V. Baglione, and T.C.J. Turlings (2014). Chicks of the great spotted cuckoo may turn brood parasitism into mutualism by producing a foul-smelling secretion that repels predators. Journal of Chemical Ecology 40: 320-324


    131. Loreto F., M. Dicke, J.-P. Schnitzler, T.C.J. Turlings (2014).  Plant volatiles and the environment: a preface. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 1905-1908


    130. Desurmont G.A., J. Harvey, N.M. van Dam,  S. Cristescu , F.P. Schiestl, S. Cozzolino , P. Anderson , M.C. Larsson, P. Kindlmann , H. Danner, and T.C.J. Turlings (2014). Alien interference: Disruption of infochemical networks by invasive insect herbivores. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 1854-1865


    129. Robert C.A.M., R.A. Ferrieri, S. Schirmer, B.A. Babst, M.J. Schueller, R.A.R. Machado, C.C.M. Arce, B.E. Hibbard, J. Gershenzon, T.C.J. Turlings and M. Erb (2014).  Induced carbon reallocation and compensatory growth as root herbivore tolerance mechanisms.  Plant, Cell and Environment 11: 2613-2622


    128. Maag D., C. Dalvit, D. Thevenet, A. Köhler, F.C. Wouters, D.G. Vassão, J. Gershenzon, J.-L. Wolfender, T.C.J. Turlings, M. Erb, and G. Glauser (2014). 3- β -D-glucopyranosyl-6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA-N-Glc) is an insect detoxification product of maize 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones. Phytochemistry 102 : 97–105


    127. Turlings T.C.J. (2014).   From applied entomology to evolutionary ecology and back (Essay for the 40th anniversary issue) .   Journal of Chemical Ecology 40: 224


    126. Canestrari D., D. Bolopo, T.C.J. Turlings, G. Röder, J.M. Marcos, and V. Baglione (2014).   From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host.   Science 343: 1350-1352


    125. Sobhy, I.S., M. Erb, Y. Lou and T. C. J. Turlings (2014). The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests.  Philosophical Transactions B   369: 1471-2970 (review)


    124. D'Alessandro, M., M. Erb, J. Ton, A. Brandenburg, D. Karlen, J. Zopfi, T.C.J. Turlings (2014). Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 813-826




    123.  Zhang, P.-J., C.-X. Xu, Y.-B. Lu, J.-M. Zhang, Y.-Q. Liu, A. David,; W. Boland, and T.C.J. Turlings (2013) .  Phloem-feeding whiteflies can fool their host plants, but not their parasitoids. Functional Ecology 27, 1304–1312


    122. von Mérey, G.E., N. Veyrat, M. D’Alessandro, T.C.J. Turlings (2013). Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars. Frontiers in plant-microbe interactions 4: 209


    121. Robert C.A.M., M. Erb, I. Hiltpold, B. Hibbard, M. Gaillard, J. Bilat, J. Degenhardt, X. Cambet-Petit-Jean, T.C.J. Turlings, C. Zwahlen (2013). Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field. Plant Biotechnology Journal 11(5): 628-39


    120. Huffaker, A., G. Pearce, N. Veyrat, M. Erb, T. C. J. Turlings, M. M. Vaughan, P.E.A. Teal, H.T. Alborn, E.A. Schmelz (2013). Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense. Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA 110(14): 5707-5712


    119. Glauser G., N. Veyrat, B. Rochat, J. L. Wolfender, T. C. J. Turlings (2013). Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for plant metabolomics: a systematic comparison of high-resolution quadrupole-time -of-flight and single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometers. Journal of Chromatography A 1292: 151-159


    118. Robert C.A.M., D.L. Frank, K.A. Leach, T.C.J. Turlings, B.E. Hibbard and M. Erb (2013).  Direct and indirect plant defenses are not suppressed by endosymbionts of a specialist root herbivore. Journal of Chemical Ecology 39(4): 507-515


    117. Christensen S.A., A. Nemchenko, E. Borrego, I. Murray, I.S. Sobhy, L. Bosak, S. DeBlasio, M. Erb, C.A.M. Robert, K.A. Vaughn, C. Herrfurth, J. Tumlinson, I. Feussner, D. Jackson, T.C.J. Turlings, J. Engelberth, C. Nansen, R. Meeley and M.V. Kolomiets (2013). The maize lipoxygenase, ZmLOX10, mediates green leaf volatile, jasmonate and herbivore-induced plant volatile production for defense against insect attack.  The Plant Journal 74, 59–73


    116. Marti G., M. Erb, J. Boccard, G. Glauser, G. R. Doyen, N. Villard, T.C.J. Turlings, S. Rudaz and J.-L. Wolfender (2013).  Metabolomics reveals herbivore-induced metabolites of resistance and susceptibility in maize leaves and roots.  Plant, Cell and Environment 36(3): 621-39




    114. Robert C.A.M., M. Erb, B.E. Hibbard, B.W. French, C. Zwahlen, and T.C.J. Turlings (2012).  A specialist root herbivore reduces plant resistance and uses an induced plant volatile to aggregate in a density dependent manner.  Functional Ecology 26 , 1429–1440


    113. Xiao, Y., Q. Wang, M. Erb, T.C.J. Turlings, L. Ge, J. Hu, J. Li, X. Han, T. Zhang, J. Lu, G. Zhang and Y. Lou (2012). Specific herbivore-induced volatiles defend plants and determine insect community composition in the field. Ecology Letters 15: 1130-1139


    111. Hiltpold, I., B.E. Hibbard, B.W. French and T.C.J. Turlings (2012).  Capsules containing entomopathogenic nematodes as a Trojan horse approach to control the western corn rootworm. Plant and Soil 385: 11-25


    112. Turlings, T.C.J., I. Hiltpold and S. Rasmann (2012).  The importance of root-produced volatiles as foraging cues for entomopathogenic nematodes. Marschner Review for the "Rhizosphere 3" Special Issue. Plant and Soil 358: 51 60


    111. Glauser, G., F. Schweizer, T.C.J. Turlings and P. Reymond (2012).    Rapid profiling of intact glucosinolates in Arabidopsis leaves by UHPLC-QTOFMS using a charged surface hybrid column.  Phytochemical Analysis 23: 520-528


    110. Hiltpold, I., and T.C.J. Turlings (2012).  Manipulation of chemically mediated interactions in agricultural soils to enhance the control of crop pests and to improve crop yield.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:641-50


    109. Robert, C.A.M., M. Erb, M. Duployer, C. Zwahlen, G.R. Doyen and T.C.J. Turlings (2012).  Herbivore-induced plant volatiles mediate host selection by a root herbivore. New Phytologist 194 : 1061-1069


    108. Sobhy, I.S., M. Erb, A. A. Sarhan, M. M. El-Husseini, N.S. Mandour and T. C. J. Turlings (2012).  Less is more: treatment with BTH and laminarin reduces herbivore-induced volatile emissions in maize but increases parasitoid attraction.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 38 : 348-360


    107. Xin, Z., Z. Yu, B. Wang, J. Qi, M. Erb , T.C.J. Turlings, S. Liu, and Y. Lou (2012).  The broadleaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp. New Phytologist 194: 498-510.


    106. Degen, T., N. Bakalovic, D. Bergvinson, and T.C.J. Turlings (2012).  Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions .  PLoS One 7(10): e47589


    105. Heng-Yu L., R. Théron, G. Röder, T. Turlings, Yun Luo, R.F.M. Lange, C. Ballif, and L.-E. Perret-Aebi (2012). Insights into the encapsulation process of photovoltaic modules: GCMS analysis on the curing step of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) encapsulant.  Polymers & Polymer Composites 20, 665-672


    104. Robert, C.A.M., N. Veyrat, G. Glauser, G. Marti, G.R. Doyen, N. Villard, M.D.P. Gaillard, T.G. Köllner, D. Giron, M. Body, B.A. Babst, R. A. Ferrieri, T.C.J. Turlings and M. Erb (2012).   A specialist root herbivore exploits defensive metabolites to locate nutritious tissues.  Ecology Letters 15: 55–64


    103. von Mérey G. E., N. Veyrat , E. de Lange, T. Degen, G. Mahuku, R. López Valdez , T.C.J. Turlings, and M. D’Alessandro (2012).  Minor effects of two elicitors of insect and pathogen resistance on the volatile emission and the biological control of Spodoptera frugiperda in maize fields.  Biological Control 60: 7-15




    102. Erb, M., D. Balmer, E. de Lange, G. von Merey, C. Planchamp, C. Robert, G. Roeder, I. Sobhy, C. Zwahlen, B. Mauch-Mani. and T.C.J. Turlings (2011). Synergies and trade-offs between insect and pathogen resistance in maize leaves and roots.  Plant Cell and Environment 34: 1088-1103


    101. Erb M., C. T. G. Köllner, J. Degenhardt, C. Zwahlen, B. Hibbard and T.C.J. Turlings (2011). The role of abscisic acid and water stress in root herbivore-induced leaf resistance.  New Phytologist 189: 308–320


    100. Erb M., C. Robert, B. Hibbard and T.C.J. Turlings (2011). Sequence of arrival determines plant-mediated interactions between herbivores .  Journal of Ecology 99:7-15


    99.   Erb M., C.A.M. Robert and T.C.J. Turlings (2011). Induction of root-resistance by leaf-herbivory follows a vertical gradient.  Journal of Plant Interactions 6: 133-136


    98.   Fontana, A., M. Held, C. Assefa Fantaye, T.C.J. Turlings, J. Degenhardt and J. Gershenzon (2011).  Attractiveness of constitutive and herbivore-induced sesquiterpene blends of maize to the parasitic wasp Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson).   Journal of Chemical Ecology 37: 582-591


    97.   Glauser G., Marti G., Villard N., Doyen G.A., Wolfender J.-L., Turlings T.C.J. and Erb M. (2011).  Induction and detoxification of maize 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones by insect herbivores. The Plant Journal 68: 901-11


    96.   Hiltpold I., M. Erb and T.C.J. Turlings (2011 ).  Systemic root signaling in a belowground, volatile mediated tritropic interaction.  Plant Cell and Environment 8: 1267-1275


    95.   Kessler, S., S. Schaerer, N. Delabays, T.C.J. Turlings, V. Trivellone and P. Kehrli (2011). Host plant preferences of Hyalesthes obsoletus, the vector of the grapevine yellows disease 'bois noir', in Switzerland. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 139 (1): 60-67


    94.   Peñaflor, M.F.G.V., M. Erb, C.A.M. Robert, L.A. Miranda, A.G. Werneburg, F.C.A. Dossi, T.C.J. Turlings, and J.M.S. Bento (2011) .  Oviposition by a moth suppresses constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles in maize.  Planta 234: 207-215


    93    Péré, C., S. Augustin, R. Tomov, T. C. J. Turlings and M. Kenis (2011).  Does the invasive horse-chestnut leaf mining moth, Cameraria ohridella, affect the native beech leaf mining weevil, Orchestes fagi, through apparent competition?  Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 3003–3016


    92.   von Mérey G., N. Veyrat, G. Mahuku, R. Lopez Valdez, T.C.J. Turlings and M. D’Alessandro (2011). Dispensing synthetic green leaf volatiles in maize fields increases the release of sesquiterpenes by the plants, but has little effect on the attraction of pest and beneficial insects. Phytochemistry 14-15: 1838-1847




    91.    Hiltpold I., Baroni M., Toepfer S., Kuhlmann U. and Turlings T. C. J. (2010). Selective breeding of entomopathogenic nematodes for enhanced attraction to a root signal did not reduce their establishment or persistence after field release. Plant Signaling and Behavior 5: 1450-1452


    90.   Erb, M., N. Foresti and T. C.J. Turlings (2010).  A tritrophic signal that attracts parasitoids withstands disruption by non-host herbivores. BMC Plant Biology 10:247


    89.    Jourdie V., E. Virla, H. Murillo, J. M. S. Bento, T. C. J. Turlings and N. Alvarez (2010). Phylogeography of Chelonus insularis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), two primary neotropical parasitoids of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).   Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 742-749


    88.   Costa A., I. Ricard, A.C. Davison and T.C.J. Turlings (2010). Effects of rewarding and unrewarding experiences on the response to host-induced plant odors in the generalist parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour 23: 303-318


    87.    Held M., M. D’Alessandro , I. Hiltpold, and T. C. J. Turlings (2010).  The role of volatile organic compounds in the indirect defense of plants against insect herbivores above- and belowground.  Chemia   64: 32


    86.    Hiltpold I., M. Baroni, S. Toepfer, U. Kuhlmann and T. C. J. Turlings (2010).  Selection of entomopathogenic nematodes for enhanced responsiveness to a volatile root signal can help to control a major root pest. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 2417-2423


    85.    Jourdie V., N. Alvarez, J. Molina-Ochoa, T. Williams, D. Bergvinson, B. Benrey, T. C. J. Turlings, and P. Franck (2010).  Population genetic structure of two primary parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera): to what extent is the host plant important? Molecular Ecology 19: 2168-2179


    84.    Péré, C., S. Augustin, R. Tomov, T. C. J. Turlings and M. Kenis (2010). The invasive alien leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella and the native maple, Acer pseudoplatanus: a fatal attraction? Agricul. and Forest Entomology 12: 151-159


    83.    Hiltpold, I., S. Toepfer, U. Kuhlmann, and T.C.J. Turlings (2010). How maize root volatiles affect the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling the western corn rootworm . Chemoecology 20: 155-162


    82.    Péré, C., S. Augustin, R. Tomov, L.-h. Peng, T. C. J. Turlings and M. Kenis (2010).  Species richness and abundance of native leaf miners is affected by the presence of the invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner.  Biological invasions 12:1011–1021




    81.    D’Alessandro M., V. Brunner, G. von Mérey and T.C.J. Turlings (2009).  Strong attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris towards minor volatile compounds of maize.  J. Chem. Ecol. 35: 999-1008


    80.    Erb, M., C. Lenk, J. Degenhardt and T. C.J. Turlings (2009). The underestimated role of roots in defense against leaf attackers. Trends in Plant Science 14: 653-659


    79.    Erb, M., R. Gordon-Weeks, V. Flors, G. Camañes, T. C.J. Turlings and J. Ton (2009). Belowground ABA boosts aboveground production of DIMBOA and primes induction of chlorogenic acid in maize.  Plant Signaling and Behavior 4: 639 – 641


    78.    Degenhardt, J., I. Hiltpold, T.G. Köllner, M. Frey, A. Gierl, J. Gershenzon, B.E. Hibbard, M. R. Ellersieck, T. C. J. Turlings (2009). Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest. Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA 106: 13213–13218


    77.    Erb, M., D. Karlen, E. de Lange, C. Planchamp., M. D’Alessandro, V. Flors, T. C. J. Turlings and J. Ton (2009). Signal signature of aboveground-induced resistance upon belowground herbivory in maize The Plant Journal 59: 292-302


    76.    Jourdie V., N. Alvarez, T. C. J. Turlings and P. Franck (2009).  Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in two primary parasitoids of the noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda: Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera).  Molecular Ecol. Resources 9 : 171–173


    75.    Kurtz B., I. Hiltpold, T.C.J. Turlings, U. Kuhlmann and S. Toepfer (2009). Comparative susceptibility of larval instars and pupae of the western corn rootworm to infection by their entomopathogenic nematodes.  BioControl   54: 255-262


    74.    Rostás M. and T.C.J. Turlings (2008). Induction of systemic acquired resistance in Zea mays also enhances the plant’s attractiveness to parasitoids. Biological Control 46: 178–186


    73.    Jourdie V., N. Alvarez and T. C. J. Turlings  (2008).   Identification of seven species of hymenopteran parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion. Agricul. and Forest Entomology 10:129-136


    72.    Faria C. A., F. Wäckers, and T. C.J. Turlings (2008). The nutritional value of aphid honeydew for non-aphid parasitoids.  Basic and Applied Ecology 9:286-297


    71.    Hiltpold I. and T. C. J. Turlings. (2008).  Belowground chemical signaling in maize: when simplicity rhymes with efficiency.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 34:628-635


    70.    Köllner T. G., M. Held, C. Lenk, I. Hiltpolt, T. C. J. Turlings, J. Gershenzon and Jörg Degenhardt (2008). A maize (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase implicated in indirect defense responses against herbivores is not expressed in most American maize varieties.  Plant Cell   20:482-494


    69.    Erb, M., J. Ton, J. Degenhardt and T. C. J. Turlings (2008). Interactions between arthropod-induced above- and belowground defenses in plants. Plant Physiology 146: 867–874


    68.    Rasmann, S. and T.C.J. Turlings (2008).  First insights into specificity of belowground tritrophic interactions.  Oikos 117: 362-369


    67.    Rasmann, S. and T.C.J. Turlings (2007). Simultaneous feeding by aboveground and belowground herbivores attenuates plant-mediated attraction of their respective natural enemies.  Ecology Letters 10: 926-736


    66.    Faria C. A., F. Wackers, J. Pritchard, and T. C.J. Turlings (2007).  Increased susceptibility of Bt maize to aphids helps to enhance the performance of parasitoids of lepidopteran pests. PLoS ONE 2(7): e600.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000600


    65.    Ton, J., M. D’ Alessandro, V. Jourdie, G. Jakab, D. Karlen, M. Held, B. Mauch-Mani, and T.C.J. Turlings (2007). Priming by airborne signals boosts direct and indirect resistance in maize .   The Plant Journal 49: 16-26.


    64.    D’Alessandro, M., M. Held, Y. Triponez, and T.C.J. Turlings (2006).  The role of indole and other shikimic acid derived volatile organic compounds in the attraction of two parasitic wasps.   J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 2733-2748


    63.    Lou Y., X. Hua, T. C. J. Turlings, and J. Cheng (2006).  Differences in induced volatile emissions among rice varieties result in differential attraction and parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens eggs by the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae in the field .  J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 2375-2387


    62.    Rostás, M., J. Ton, B. Mauch-Mani, and T. C. J. Turlings (2006).  Fungal infection reduces herbivore-induced plant volatiles of maize but does not affect naïve parasitoids.    J. Chem. Ecol.   32: 1897-1909


    61.    Tamò C., L., Roelfstra G., Suzanne, and T. C. J. Turlings (2006).  Odour-mediated long-range avoidance of interspecific competition by a solitary endoparasitoid may optimize its foraging success.  J. Animal Ecology 75: 1091–1099


    60.    Turlings, T.C.J. and J. Ton (2006).  Exploiting scents of distress: the prospect of manipulating herbivore-induced plant odours to repel pest insects and attract their enemies. Invited review for Current Opinion in Plant Biology 9: 421–427


    59.    Tamò, C., I. Ricard, M. Held, A. C. Davison and T. C. J. Turlings (2006).  A comparison of naïve and conditioned responses of three generalist endoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae to host-induced plant odours.  Animal Biology 56: 205-220


    58.    Schnee C., T. G. Köllner, M. Held, T. C. J. Turlings, J. Gershenzon and J. Degenhardt (2006).  A maize terpene synthase contributes to a volatile defense signal that attracts natural enemies of maize herbivores.   Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA 103: 1129-1134


    57.    D’Alessandro  M. & T. C. J. Turlings (2006).  Advances and challenges in the identification of volatiles that mediate interactions among plants and arthropods.  The Analyst 131: 24 - 32


    56.    D’Alessandro  M. & T. C. J. Turlings (2005).  In Situ modification of herbivore-induced plant odours: A novel approach to study the attractiveness of volatile organic compounds to parasitic wasps.  Chemical Senses 30: 739 - 753  


    55.    Turlings, T. C. J., P. M. Jeanbourquin, M. Held & T.  Degen (2005).  Evaluating the induced-odour emission of a Bt maize and its attractiveness to parasitic wasps.   Transgenic Research 14: 807-816


    54.    Lou Y., Du M., Turlings T., Shan W. and Cheng J. (2005).  Exogenous application of jasmonic acid induces volatile emissions in rice and enhances parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens eggs by the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae J. Chem. Ecol.   31: 1985 - 2002


    53.    Hoballah, M. E.  & T. C. J. Turlings (2005).  The role of fresh versus old leaf damage in the attraction of parasitic wasps to herbivore-induced maize volatiles.  J. Chem. Ecol. 31: 2003-2018


    52.    Hoballah M. E., J. Stuurman, T.C.J. Turlings, P. Guerin, S. Connétable and C. Kuhlemeier (2005).  The composition and timing of flower odour emission by wild Petunia axillaris (Solanaceae) are in tune with the antennal perception and nocturnal activity of the pollinator Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).  Planta 222: 141-150


    51.    Gouinguené S., J. A. Pickett, L. J. Wadhams, M. A. Birkett & T. C. J. Turlings (2005).  Antennal electrophysiological responses of three parasitic wasps to the caterpillar-induced volatiles from maize, cowpea and cotton.  J. Chem. Ecol. 31:1023- 1038.


    50.    Rasmann, S., T. G. Köllner, J. Degenhardt, I. Hiltpold, S. Töpfer , U. Kuhlmann, J. Gershenzon, and T. C. J. Turlings (2005).  Recruitment of entomophatogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots.  Nature 434: 732-737.


    49.    Kalberer, N. M., T. C. J. Turlings, & M. Rahier (2005).  An alternative hibernation strategy involving sun-exposed “hotspots”, dispersal by flight and host plant finding by olfaction in an alpine leaf beetle. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 114: 189–196,.


    48.    Degen, T., C. Dillmann, F. Marion-Poll & T. C. J. Turlings (2004).  Genetic variability in herbivore-induced volatile emission within a broad range of maize inbred lines.  Plant Physiology 135: 1928-1938


    47.    Turlings, T.C.J., A. Davison  & C. Tamò (2004). A six-arm olfactometer permitting simultaneous observation of insect attraction and odour trapping.  Physiol. Entomol. 29 (1): 45-55


    46.    Hoballah, M. E., T. Degen, D. Bergvinson, A. Savidan & T. C. J.  Turlings (2004).  Occurrence and direct control potential of parasitoids and predators of the Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize in the subtropical lowlands of Mexico. Agricul. and Forest Entomol. 6: 83-88.


    45.    Hoballah, M. E., T. G. Koellner, J. Degenhardt & T. C. J. Turlings (2004). Costs of induced volatile production in maize.  Oikos 105: 168-180


    44.    Vogelgsang S., Abou-Mansour E., Guerin P., Hoballah M.E., Turlings T., Tabacchi R. (2003). The NCCR Plant Survival at the University of Neuchatel - The role of chemistry in an interdisciplinary Swiss research network.  Chimia 57 (10): 630-633 2003


    43.    Kuske, S., F. Widmer, P. J. Edwards, T.C.J. Turlings, D. Babendreier & F. Bigler (2003).  Dispersal and persistence of mass released Trichogramma brassicae in non-target habitats. Biological control 27: 181-193.


    42.    Kuske S., D. Babendreier, P. J. Edwards, T.C.J. Turlings & F. Bigler, 2003. Parasitism of non-target Lepidoptera by mass released Trichogramma brassicae and its implication for the larval parasitoid Lydella thompsoni BioControl 49: 1-19.


    41.    Gouinguené S., H. Alborn & T. C. J. Turlings, 2003.  Induction of volatile emissions in maize by different larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis. J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 145-162.


    40.    Gouinguené, S., & T. C. J. Turlings, 2002.  The effects of abiotic factors on induced volatile emissions in corn plants.  Plant Physiol. 129: 1296-1307.


    39.    Hoballah, M. & Turlings, T. (2002).  Benefits and costs of induced volatile production in maize plants.  Bulletin-OILB/SROP  25(6): 95-98.


    38.    Fritzsche Hoballah. M. E., C. Tamò & T. C. J. Turlings, 2002. Differential attractiveness of induced odors emitted by eight maize varieties for the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris: is quality or quantity important? J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 951-968.


    37.    Chattopadhayay, J., R. Sarkar, M.E. Fritzsche-Hoballah, T. C. J. Turlings & L.-F. Bersier, 2001.  Parasitoids may determine plant fitness: a mathematical model based on experimental data.  J. Theor. Biol. 212: 295-302.


    36.    Grison-Pigé, L., J.-M. Bessière, F. Jardon, T. C. J. Turlings, F. Kjellberg, J. Roy & M. Hossaert-McKey, 2001.  Limited inter sex floral odour mimicry in Ficus carica. Functional Ecology 15: 1-8.


    35.    Bertschy, C., T.C.J.  Turlings, A. Bellotti, & S. Dorn, 2001.  The role of mealybug-induced cassava plant volatiles in the attraction of the encyrtid parasitoids Aenasius vexans and Apoanagyrus diversicornis. J. of Insect Beh. 14: 363-371.


    34.    Bernasconi Ockroy M. L., T. C. J. Turlings, P. J. Edwards, M. E. Fritzsche-Hoballah, L. Ambrosetti, P. Bassetti, & S. Dorn, 2001.  Response of natural populations of predators and parasitoids to artificially induced volatile emissions in maize plants (Zea mays L.). Agric. & Forest Entomol. 3: 1-10.


    33.    Fritzsche-Hoballah, M. E., & T.C.J. Turlings, 2001.  Experimental evidence that plants under caterpillar attack may benefit from attracting parasitoids. Evol. Ecol.  Research 3: 1-13.


    32.    Kalberer, N. M., T. C. J. Turlings, & M. Rahier, 2001.  Attraction of a leaf beetle (Oreina cacaliae) to damaged host plants.  J. Chem. Ecol.   27: 647-661.


    31.    Gouiguené, S., T. Degen, & T.C.J. Turlings, 2001.  Genotypic variation in induced odour emissions among maize cultivars and wild relatives.  Chemoecology .  11: 9-16.


    30.    Bertschy, C., T.C.J. Turlings, A. Bellotti & S. Dorn, 2000.  Host stage preference and sex allocation in Aenasius vexans, an encyrtid parasitoid of the cassave mealybug. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 95: 289-291.


    29.    Turlings, T.C.J., H.T. Alborn, J.H. Loughrin, & J.H. Tumlinson, 2000.  Volicitin, an elicitor of maize volatiles in the oral secretion of Spodoptera exigua: its isolation and bio-activity. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 189-202.


    28.    C agán, L., T.C.J. Turlings, P. Bokor, & S. Dorn, 1999.  Lydella thompsoni Herting (Dipt., Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. (Lep., Pyralidae) in Slovakia, Czech Republic and south-western Poland.  J. Appl. Entomol. 123: 577-583.


    27.    Turlings T.C.J., U. B. Lengwiler, M. L. Bernasconi, & D. Wechsler, 1998.  Timing of induced volatile emissions in maize seedlings.  Planta 207: 146-152.


    26.    Turlings, T. C. J. and B. Benrey, 1998.  The effects of plant metabolites on the behavior and development of parasitic wasps.   Écoscience 5: 321-333.


    25.    Bernasconi, M. L., T. C. J. Turlings, L. Ambrosetti, P. Bassetti, and  S. Dorn, 1998. Herbivore-induced emissions of maize volatiles repel the Corn-Leaf Aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 87: 133-142.


    24.    Turlings T. C. J., M. Bernasconi, R. Bertossa, G. Caloz, F. Bigler, and S. Dorn, 1998.  The induction of volatile emissions in maize by three herbivore species with different feeding habits: possible consequences for their natural enemies.  Biol. Control 11:122-129.


    23.    Bertschy, C., T.C.J. Turlings, A. Bellotti, and S. Dorn, 1997.  Chemically-mediated attraction of three parasitoid species to mealybug-infested cassava leaves. Fla. Entomol. 80: 383-395.


    22.    Alborn, H. T., T. C. J. Turlings, T. H. Jones, G. Stenhagen, J. H. Loughrin & J. H. Tumlinson, 1997.  An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion. Science 276: 945-949.


    21.    Boevé, J.-L., U. Lengwiler, L. Tollsten, S. Dorn, & T.C.J. Turlings, 1996.  Volatiles emitted by apple fruitlets infested by larvae of the European apple sawfly.  Phytochemistry 42: 373-381.


    20.    Turlings, T. C. J., J. H. Loughrin, U. Röse, P. J. McCall, W. J. Lewis, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1995.  How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.   Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA   92: 4169-4174.


    19.    Stowe, M. K., T. C. J. Turlings, J. H. Loughrin, W. J. Lewis, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1995.  The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit. Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA 92: 23-28.


    18.    Loughrin, J. H., A. Manukian, R. R. Heath, T. C. J. Turlings, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1994.  Diurnal cycle of emission of induced volatile terpenoids by herbivore-injured cotton.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Science. USA   91: 11836-11840.


    17.    McCall, P. J., T. C. J. Turlings, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1994.  Herbivore-induced volatile emissions in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings.  J. Chem. Ecol.  20: 3039-3050.


    16.    Turlings, T. C. J., 1994.  The active role of plants in the foraging successes of entomophagous insects.   Norweg. J. Agric. Sc. 16: 211-219.


    15.    McCall, P. J., T. C. J. Turlings, W. J. Lewis, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1993. The role of plant volatiles in host location by the specialist parasitoid Microplitis croceipes Cresson (Braconidae: Hymenoptera).  J. Insect Behav. 6: 625-639.


    14.    Turlings, T. C. J., H. T. Alborn, P. J. McCall, & J. H. Tumlinson, 1993.  An elicitor in caterpillar oral secretions that induces corn seedlings to emit volatiles attractive to parasitic wasps. J. Chem. Ecol. 19: 411-425.


    13.    Tumlinson, J. H., T. C. J. Turlings, & W. J. Lewis, 1993.  Semiochemically mediated foraging behavior in beneficial parasitic insects.  Archiv. Insect Biochem. Phys. 22: 385-391.


    12.    Tumlinson, J. H., T. C. J. Turlings, & W. J. Lewis, 1992.  The semiochemical complexes that mediate insect parasitoid foraging.  Agric. Zool. Rev. 5: 221-252.


    11.    Petitt, F. L., T. C. J. Turlings, & S. P. Wolf, 1992.  Adult experience modifies attraction of the leafminer parasitoid Opius dissitus Muesebeck to volatile semiochemicals.   J. Insect Behav. 5: 623-634.


    10.    Turlings C. J., & J. H. Tumlinson, 1992.  Systemic chemical signalling by herbivore-injured corn.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA   89: 8399-8402.


    9.      Turlings, T. C. J., J. H. Tumlinson, R. R. Heath, A. T. Proveaux, & R. E. Doolittle, 1991. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals that attract the larval parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) to the micro‑habitat of one of its hosts. J. Chem. Ecol. 17: 2235-2251


    8.      Turlings, T. C. J., & J. H. Tumlinson, 1991.  Do parasitoids use herbivore‑induced plant chemical defenses to locate hosts?  Fla. Entomol.  74: 42-50.


    7.      Turlings, T. C. J., J. H. Tumlinson, F.J. Eller, & W. J. Lewis, 1991.  Larval‑damaged plants: source of volatile synomones that guide the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris to the micro‑habitat of its hosts.  Entomol. Exp. Appl.  58: 75-82.


    6.      Turlings, T. C. J., J. H. Tumlinson, & W. J. Lewis, 1990.  Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps.  Science  250: 1251-1253.


    5.      Turlings, T. C. J., J. W. A. Scheepmaker, L. E. M. Vet, J. H. Tumlinson, & W. J. Lewis, 1990.  How contact foraging experiences affect the preferences for host‑related odors in the larval parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Chem. Ecol.   16: 1577‑1589.


    4.      Turlings, T. C. J., J. H. Tumlinson, W. J. Lewis, & L. E. M. Vet, 1989.  Beneficial arthropod behavior mediated by airborne semiochemicals.  VII. Learning of host‑related odors induced by a brief contact experience with host by‑products in Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), a generalist larval parasitoid.  J. Insect Behav.  2(2): 217‑225.


    3.      Sokolowski, M. B., & T. C. J. Turlings, 1986.  Drosophila parasitoid‑host interactions: vibrotaxis and ovipositor searching from the host's perspective.  Can. J. Zool. 65(3): 461‑464.


    2.      Bakker, K., J. J. M. van Alphen, F. D. H. van Batenburg, N. van der Hoeven, W. T. F. H. van Strien‑van Liempt, & T. C. J. Turlings, 1985.  The function of host discrimination and superparasitization in parasitoids.  Oecologia 67: 572‑576.


    1.      Turlings, T. C. J., F. D. H. van Batenburg, & W. T. F. H. van Strien‑van Liempt, 1985. Why is there no interspecific host discrimination in the two coexisting larval parasitoids of Drosophila species; Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson) and Asobara tabida (Nees)? Oecologia 67: 352‑359

    Book (Chapters)


    7.      Hiltpold, I. and Turlings T. C. J.  (2013). Manipulation of below-ground scents for the benefit of agriculture, in Utilising Plant Defence for Pest Control In: (K. V. Wurms, A. J. Popay, N. L. Bell and M. V. Jaspers eds.) The New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Incorporated) (NZ), pp. 39-56


    6.      Johnson, SC, Hiltpold, I, Turlings, TCJ (editors) 2013. Behaviour and Physiology of Root Herbivores. Advances in Insect Physiology Volume 45, Elsevier, p.p 1-264.        


    5.      Turlings T. C. J., and F.L. Wäckers (2004).  Recruitment of predators and parasitoids by herbivore-damaged plants.  In (R. T. Cardé & J. Millar eds.)  Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 21-75.


    4.      Turlings T. C. J., S. Gouinguené, T. Degen and M. E. Fritzsche-Hoballah (2002). The chemical ecology of plant-caterpillar-parasitoid interactions.  In (T. Tscharntke & B. Hawkins eds.) Multitrophic Level Interactions. Cambridge University Press, pp. 148-173.


    3.      Turlings, T.C.J. and B. Benrey (2001). Efectos de los metabolitos secundarios vegetales en el comportamiento y desarrollo de avispas parasitoides. In: (A.L. Anaya, F.J. Espinosa-García, and R.Cruz-Ortega, eds.) Relaciones Químicas entre Organismos: aspectos básicos y perspectivas de su aplicación. Instituto de Ecología, UNAM y Plaza y Valdés, S.A. de C.V. México, pp. 505-540.


    2.      Turlings, T.C.J. and M.E. Fritzsche (1999).  Attraction of parasitic wasps by caterpillar-damaged plants. In: (Goode ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence.  The Novartis Foundation Symposium No 223: 21-38.


    1.      Turlings, T. C. J., F. Wäckers, L. E. M. Vet, W. J. Lewis, & J. H. Tumlinson (1993).  Learning of host-finding cues by hymenopterous parasitoids.  In: Insect Learning: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives .  D. R. Papaj & A. Lewis (eds.).  Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 51-78.





    3.       Degenhardt, J., Köllner, T., Gershenzon, J., Cr0coll, C., Hiltpold, I. and Turlings T.C.J. (2009).

              EP # Patent 08 01 8970.7 Polynucleotides encoding caryphyllene synthase and uses thereof.


    2.      Tumlinson, J. H., Alborn, H. T., Loughrin, J. H., Turlings, T. C. J. and Jones, T.H. (2001). U.S. Patent # 6.227.792.  Plant volatile elicitor from insects.


    1.      Tumlinson, J. H., Alborn, H. T., Loughrin, J. H., Turlings, T. C. J. and Jones, T.H. (2000). U.S. Patent # 6.054.483.  Plant volatile elicitor from insects.